The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: State Outreach to Eligible Populations

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) supports the nutritional needs of individuals and families facing economic hardships and limited incomes. In New Hampshire, SNAP is administered as the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program and, before the pandemic, assisted about 45,000 adults and 29,000 children.[1] Previous NHFPI analysis found that the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program may not have reached all individuals who may have been eligible for assistance in the state in 2019.

SNAP guidelines for states offer flexibilities to expand eligibility and conduct program outreach, which helps ensure that information regarding benefits and eligibility is available to residents who may qualify for assistance. The federal government reimburses states for half of the costs associated with outreach programs so long as those costs are part of an outreach plan approved annually by the United States Department of Agriculture. Outreach plans are encouraged by the federal government, as they may improve program participation and help ensure more stable access to food for populations with limited resources while providing economic stimulus.

New Hampshire has an opportunity to access more federal funding for outreach activities. The State currently does not have an approved outreach plan; the last approved outreach plan, which facilitated access to federal reimbursement support, ended in September 2017. Access to additional federal resources may help the State and other entities connect residents with food assistance, aiding families and supporting the local economy.

Expanded outreach to eligible residents may enhance program awareness and enrollment, including among populations disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 crisis and Granite Staters who may have become eligible for SNAP benefits for the first time due to the crisis. Increasing participation in SNAP would also bolster the ongoing economic recovery; according to analysis from the United States Department of Agriculture, SNAP benefits generate about $1.50 in economic activity for every additional dollar invested in assistance when the economy is weak.

States bordering New Hampshire have implemented federally-approved outreach plans more recently than New Hampshire, and expanded eligibility to a greater extent within the framework permitted by the federal government; these policies appear to have more effectively reached residents with low incomes.

This Issue Brief discusses food insecurity, SNAP enrollment, and outreach plans. Analysis in this Issue Brief examines SNAP administration, federally-approved outreach plans, and enrollment in neighboring states and compares them to New Hampshire. This Issue Brief also reviews the economic benefits of SNAP assistance, food scarcity levels from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and opportunities to increase enrollment to help ensure SNAP reaches more residents and families in need of food assistance.

 

Food Aid and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

Resources spent on food can constitute a significant share of a household’s budget, particularly for households with incomes near or below poverty levels. National data provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) shows that households with the lowest 20 percent of incomes were estimated to spend an average of 36 percent of their income on food in 2019, compared to only 8 percent spent by the households with the highest 20 percent of incomes.[2] The difficulty in accessing and affording food is recognized as food insecurity and is defined by the USDA as when “households [are], at times, unable to acquire adequate food for one or more household members because they had insufficient money and other resources for food.”[3] In an effort to mitigate food insecurity and help ensure eligible households can afford and access food despite financial constraints, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutritional aid to households with lower incomes and limited resources. SNAP is extremely responsive to times of economic decline due to its means-tested design, supporting households facing financial challenges. SNAP benefits are fully funded by the federal government, and the administrative costs of the program are split between the federal and state governments. SNAP benefits can only be used on food items for human consumption, and exclude items such as prepared hot foods, vitamins, paper products, soap, alcohol, and tobacco.[4]

Eligibility Overview of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

Eligibility for SNAP is determined for households based on levels of gross income, net income (gross income minus allowable expenses, including child care, housing rental, and utility costs within certain parameters), assets (excluding certain assets which include a primary residence and vehicle), and the composition and number of individuals in a household. Most eligibility guidelines are set federally, although some key flexibilities are provided to states. Most households will qualify for assistance if gross income is less than or equal to 130 percent of the Federal Poverty Guidelines (FPG) (or 165 percent for individuals who have a disability or are age 60 and over), net income is less than or equal to 100 percent of the FPG, and assets total no more than $2,250, or $3,500 (with certain exemptions) for households with members who are older adults or have a disability.[5] More households may be eligible for SNAP benefits through categorical eligibility and broad-based categorical eligibility. These additional households are eligible beyond the base income standard if all members receive public assistance through other assistance programs, including Supplemental Security Income.[6] Additionally, certain households and individuals must comply with work requirements to receive benefits.[7]

Need for Nutritional Aid and Program Enrollment

National USDA data show that food insecurity is more prevalent in households that have children, that are headed by single parents, that have incomes below 185 percent of the poverty thresholds, or in which the householder identifies as African American or Hispanic.[8] Prior to the pandemic, the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program provided nutritional aid to an average of approximately 75,000 Granite Staters each month during 2019. Of those individuals, an average of about 29,000, or nearly 40 percent, were children.[9] Previous NHFPI analysis found that the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program may not have reached all individuals who may have been eligible for assistance in the state in 2019. These estimates indicate that up to approximately 17,000 children in New Hampshire may have been eligible for SNAP assistance but were not enrolled in the program. While certain individuals may choose not to access benefits even if they know they qualify, there may have also been thousands of additional adults eligible for SNAP who were not aware they were eligible, particularly during the pandemic.[10]

 

SNAP Outreach and Opportunities to Improve Access to Nutritional Aid

The USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) administers and provides federal guidance for SNAP. SNAP benefits are funded entirely by the federal government, and the cost of administering the program in states is split between FNS and each state. In addition to reviewing applications, ensuring eligibility guidelines are met, and certifying applicants, a key aspect of the program’s administration is outreach. FNS considers program outreach essential in helping to ensure that more households in need of assistance know about the program and can apply for benefits.[11]

FNS encourages state agencies that administer SNAP to develop outreach plans for each federal fiscal year, which include details and goals regarding projects and outreach activities a state agency intends to undertake or collaborate on with other organizations. FNS notes that creating and undertaking an official outreach plan allows for state agencies “to look back at what has been done, celebrate accomplishments, assess miscalculations, and revise strategies as needed to make progress in the future.”[12] Outreach plans encourage additional and consistent collection of information regarding the progress and success of outreach activities through required reporting between FNS and the state agencies that administer SNAP. This information can provide guidance for future outreach and policy practices that are most effective. Additionally, FNS notes that outreach plans allow state agencies to promote SNAP outreach alongside and through key community partners, strengthening relationships among organizations that have a common goal of helping ensure that individuals and families are not struggling to access food.[13]

Activities outlined in an FNS-approved outreach plan are considered an administrative cost, resulting in state agencies being eligible for reimbursement of 50 percent of allowable costs each federal fiscal year. These reimbursements are dependent on levels of federal funding. Plans are typically approved before the start of a federal fiscal year so states can outline a full 12-month period of outreach and reimbursements. If an outreach plan is submitted and approved after the start of a federal fiscal year, reimbursements of outreach costs will be half of the approved costs for the remainder of the 12-month period. Allowable activities eligible for direct and indirect costs reimbursements include:

  • Eligibility pre-screening, application assistance, assistance obtaining application verification documents, and translation services
  • Information circulation about SNAP through community events, via flyers, booths, or workshops
  • Informational posts on social media and through online information sites
  • Distributions of materials that provide information on where SNAP benefits are accepted, information correcting myths about the program, and overall education about the program
  • Training programs for SNAP outreach workers
  • Reasonable staff time and compensation solely attributed to outreach outlined in the plan[14]

Reimbursement of the costs used to pay for outreach activities include any allowable cost accrued by the state agency that developed the outreach plan or contracted subrecipients that conducted activities as outlined and approved by FNS in the outreach plan. Additionally, FNS will not withhold reimbursements if goals laid out in an outreach plan are not reached. Allowable outreach activities do not include recruitment programs designed to persuade individuals to apply; filling out applications on behalf of an applicant; determining program eligibility; or advertisement promotion via radio, television, or billboards.[15]

Funding for outreach activities outlined in an FNS-approved and implemented outreach plan does not need to come from state-level revenues or obligations in order to receive a 50 percent reimbursement. Sources of funding for state agency expenditures can include money or in-kind donations contributed by other state or local level organizations. Additionally, financial resources provided by groups that are subrecipients within an outreach plan may be used to support state agency-administered and -supported outreach programs, while also being eligible for reimbursement of 50 percent of costs, so long as these subrecipient groups are contracted with the state agency within the outreach plan. This means that resources used to fund state-level outreach can be fully provided by community organizations that will conduct outreach, such as food banks and other local organizations, while still receiving a 50 percent reimbursement of these costs from FNS. In some unique cases, private donations can also be utilized for reimbursable SNAP outreach, contingent upon FNS approval.[16]

SNAP Program Administration and Outreach in New Hampshire

New Hampshire administers SNAP through the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program, which follows much of the eligibility guidelines set federally. Flexibilities to expand eligibility through broad-based categorical eligibility (BBCE) allows for states to provide federally-funded SNAP benefits beyond the federal 130 percent FPG gross income standard while permitting households that are otherwise eligible to access benefits without an asset test.[17] As of July 2021, there are 44 states that utilize BBCE to extend the reach of SNAP aid. In New Hampshire, BBCE criteria extends the gross income limit to less than or equal to 185 percent of FPG only for households that have at least one dependent child and a related relative. New Hampshire is the only state that has this household composition requirement for BBCE. [18] In addition, New Hampshire’s most recently administered FNS-approved outreach plan ended in September 2017. As a result, any outreach activities conducted via programs and operations led by the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as outreach from other organizations, were not eligible to receive reimbursements from FNS without an approved state outreach plan.

During 2019, the most recent federal fiscal year (FFY) before the onset of the pandemic, monthly average enrollment in SNAP totaled about 39,000 households. These households were comprised of about 75,000 individuals, of which approximately 45,000 were adults and 29,000 were children.[19] During the 2019 calendar year, one-year estimates from the United States Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) show that about 78,000 adults and 18,000 children had incomes under 100 percent FPG, and about 195,000 adults and 53,000 children had incomes under 200 percent FPG in New Hampshire. [20]

Program Administration and Outreach in Neighboring States

The states of Maine, Vermont, and Massachusetts all border New Hampshire and administer SNAP for their eligible residents. Each of these bordering states implemented FNS-approved outreach plans during FFY 2019 and had broader eligibility guidelines than New Hampshire, allowing more households to receive nutritional benefits through BBCE.

The Maine Department of Health and Human Services administers SNAP, known as the Food Supplement in that state. Federal flexibilities provided through BBCE are utilized in Maine; the gross income eligibility threshold is less than or equal to 185 percent FPG, the same level as in New Hampshire. Unlike New Hampshire, Maine has no additional requirements regarding family composition for BBCE, meaning that more childless households may be eligible for nutritional assistance through SNAP.[21] Maine also implemented a modest outreach plan in FFY 2019 that aimed to conduct outreach among homeless veterans and support the distribution of informational brochures.[22] During FFY 2019, monthly average enrollment in SNAP in Maine totaled about 82,000 households. These households comprised about 143,000 individuals, of which approximately 97,000 were adults and 46,000 were children. During the 2019 calendar year, one-year estimates from the ACS show that about 142,000 individuals had incomes under 100 percent and about 361,000 had incomes below 200 percent of poverty in Maine.[23]

The Vermont Agency of Human Services administers SNAP in the Green Mountain State, where the program is named 3SquaresVT. Flexibilities provided through BBCE are utilized in Vermont as well; like Maine and New Hampshire, the gross income eligibility threshold in Vermont is less than or equal to 185 percent FPG. Like Maine, Vermont has no additional family composition requirements for BBCE as New Hampshire does, meaning more childless households may be eligible for nutritional assistance through SNAP.[24] Vermont has implemented an extensive outreach plan during FFY 2019, which included significant community outreach to a variety of different groups through local and regional partner organizations, training for outreach workers, and collaborative and multifaceted information dissemination campaigns.[25] During FFY 2019, monthly average enrollment in SNAP totaled about 39,000 households in Vermont. These households were comprised of about 68,000 individuals, of which approximately 46,000 were adults and 22,000 were children. During the 2019 calendar year, one-year estimates from the ACS show that about 61,000 individuals had incomes under 100 percent and about 151,000 had incomes below 200 percent of poverty in Vermont.[26]

In Massachusetts, the Department of Transitional Assistance administers the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Flexibilities provided through BBCE are utilized in Massachusetts; the gross income eligibility threshold is higher than in New Hampshire, Maine, or Vermont, rising to 200 percent FPG. Like Maine and Vermont, Massachusetts has no additional family composition requirements for BBCE as New Hampshire does, meaning more childless households may be eligible for nutritional assistance through SNAP.[27] Massachusetts implemented an expansive outreach plan during FFY 2019, which includes significant use of partner organizations such as food banks, local community service non-profits, and other charities to conduct community outreach throughout the state, strategic information dissemination, and supporting a specialized phone hotline offering information about nutritional aid.[28] During FFY 2019, monthly average enrollment in SNAP totaled about 445,000 households in Massachusetts. These households were comprised of about 748,000 individuals, of which approximately 496,000 were adults and 251,000 were children. During the 2019 calendar year, one-year estimates from the ACS show that about 625,000 individuals had incomes under 100 percent of poverty and about 1,388,000 had incomes below 200 percent of poverty in Massachusetts.[29]

Pre-pandemic Comparisons Between New Hampshire and Neighboring States

Levels of outreach, along with key expanded eligibility rules, differ between New Hampshire and its neighboring states. Comparing each state’s respective average SNAP enrollment with estimates of the number of residents living with incomes below and near poverty may provide insights into each program’s reach and uptake among these potentially-eligible populations. Ratios of individuals enrolled in each state’s program relative to individuals with incomes of up to twice the poverty level reveals that Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont, which are all states that implemented FNS approved outreach plans in FFY 2019 and have broader BBCE guidelines, may have more effectively reached residents living with low incomes.

Comparing the average number of SNAP enrollees in each state to the estimated number of individuals with incomes below poverty may also indicate outreach effectiveness. Most residents with gross incomes at 100 percent FPG or below should be eligible for SNAP in every state based on either traditional eligibility, which does include an asset requirement, or BBCE, which focuses on gross income. In Massachusetts, the number of SNAP enrollees was significantly greater than the estimated number of residents in poverty. Maine and Vermont both had a similar number of people enrolled in SNAP as were estimated to be in poverty, while New Hampshire’s SNAP enrollment was notably less than the number of people estimated to be in poverty, at 77 percent, suggesting lower enrollment relative to a potentially-eligible population. All states bordering New Hampshire implemented federally-approved outreach activities in 2019, and may have more effectively promoted SNAP outreach among eligible populations.

BBCE extends eligibility to households with incomes higher than traditional eligibility and federal rules allow for states to extend the BBCE eligibility threshold up to 200 percent of FPG. New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont extend the threshold to 185 percent, and Massachusetts expands it to 200 percent. However, New Hampshire is the only state that also requires households include a dependent child in order be eligible through BBCE, and this requirement may limit the reach of SNAP to households with lower incomes. Comparisons between SNAP enrollment and the numbers of residents with incomes up to 200 percent of FPG permit measurement of probable SNAP uptake among these populations with lower incomes. Massachusetts had the greatest apparent reach of the four states, with the number of SNAP enrollees approximately equivalent to 54 percent of the number of people estimated to be in or near poverty in Massachusetts, suggesting higher levels of enrollment among residents living with lower incomes. Additionally, estimates for Maine and Vermont indicate greater levels of apparent reach than New Hampshire; Vermont’s more expansive outreach activities may have helped boost enrollment relative to the more limited efforts in Maine, which had similar eligibility requirements. The more expansive BBCE eligibility rules in all three of New Hampshire’s neighboring states resulted in more households without children being eligible for assistance.

Impact of the Covid-19 Crisis on Program Administration

Throughout the pandemic, there were increases in estimated levels of food scarcity, defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as when a household’s members “sometimes or often did not have enough to eat in the last seven days”; levels of food scarcity in New Hampshire and nationwide continue to appear to remain somewhat elevated.[30] Key changes to the program were implemented to address the uneven and ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 crisis.[31] In New Hampshire, several program changes and flexibilities throughout the pandemic allowed for the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program to respond to the rapidly changing nature of the challenges and needs facing individuals and families.

Temporary Changes to the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program

Key changes to nutritional aid provided through the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program were implemented to respond to the pandemic, through federal pandemic-related aid packages and flexible waiver opportunities provided by FNS.[32] Throughout the last 18 months, waivers surrounding application processing, including in application certification and signature processes, have altered some of the typical requirements. Additionally, increases to benefits aimed to help individuals and families afford food throughout the pandemic. Since April 2020, emergency allotments and boosts to maximum benefits have increased the levels of nutritional aid that all enrolled households are receiving.[33] New Hampshire is expected to continue accessing additional emergency allotments through December 31, 2021, and they will be available as long as federal and state public health emergencies are in place. The temporary boost to the highest level of SNAP benefits implemented by the December 2020 and March 2021 federal aid packages expired at the end of September 2021, but FNS implemented an increase to SNAP benefits starting in October 2021.[34]

Benefits and Economic Impacts of Nutritional Aid

Nutritional aid provides significant benefits to individuals and families and the economy overall. Stable access to food is essential for the development and health of children as well as the health of adults.[35] In addition to the role of nutritional aid has in the health of Granite Staters, SNAP benefits provide economic boosts during times of economic recession, recovery, and expansion.[36] Analysis of federal economic stimulus policies during the Great Recession, specifically during early 2009, by Moody’s Analytics showed that every dollar invested into new SNAP benefits to support individuals and families generated $1.74 of economic activity.[37] More recent analysis from the USDA in 2019 estimated that every dollar invested in new SNAP benefits would generate about $1.50 in economic activity when the economy is weak.[38] During the ongoing recovery from the COVID-19 crisis, expanding program outreach to connect with more Granite Staters who may require and be eligible for assistance could provide important benefits to families in need of support as well as economic benefits for the economy overall.

 

Recent Outreach Pilot Program in New Hampshire

From January 2021 through May 2021, an outreach pilot program coordinated by non-profit advocates and funded by private donations was conducted throughout New Hampshire. These outreach activities were conducted with the goal of increasing awareness of support available through the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program and increasing program participation among eligible populations. Due to the severe employment and income impacts of the pandemic, outreach was also aimed at improving understanding about the program and reducing any stigma about participation, as many Granite Staters may have become newly eligible for benefits who had not received public assistance in the past.[39]

Activities in this pilot program included the launch of an informational website, directing and linking visitors to check eligibility via the official New Hampshire program website. Additionally, social media advertising, direct mailings, newspaper advertising, and flyer distribution providing key program information were components of this pilot program. Initial metrics show that these outreach activities may have been associated with increased activity on the New Hampshire Food Bank SNAP Assistance phone line, which provides information and assistance with SNAP applications. Findings from this outreach pilot effort, and analysis of official outreach programs in other states, suggest that additional and consistent outreach activities may result in greater program participation, especially during times of economic hardship or overall economic decline.[40]

 

Opportunities for Expanded Nutritional Aid Investments

Analysis of SNAP enrollment and outreach activities in Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont indicate that FNS-approved outreach and expanded eligibility may have effectively increased SNAP participation among residents with low incomes relative to New Hampshire. Approved outreach plans allow for 50 percent reimbursements of certain administrative costs and funds for outreach, and allow for the state-level cost obligations to be raised and funded by partner organizations such as food banks, as opposed to being supported by state public dollars alone. Additionally, official SNAP outreach plans aid in setting goals, program evaluation, outreach partnerships, and information collection for required reporting. FNS encourages states to develop annual outreach plans to improve program participation, highlighting the importance of stable access to food and the overall economic benefits that SNAP provides.

Outreach may help underserved populations have greater access to SNAP benefits. These benefits provide key nutritional aid, and could be one support to help promote a more equitable recovery from the COVID-19 crisis. Higher levels of SNAP enrollment would enhance the flow of benefits to New Hampshire, which would bolster the overall recovery and generate more than a dollar in economic activity for each new dollar invested in benefits.[41] Resources invested in outreach may similarly multiply the benefits to New Hampshire’s economy from increased SNAP participation. Greater program outreach may help boost enrollment of eligible residents, which would provide key nutritional aid to more individuals and families in need and promote a more equitable economic recovery in New Hampshire.

 

Sources

[1] Averages for calendar year 2019 are calculated utilizing the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services Monthly Caseload Assistance Reports.

[2] See the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture analysis of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2019 Consumer Expenditure Survey.

[3] The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture defines food insecurity and the methodology for measuring food insecurity in the Department’s yearly data and estimate releases.

[4] For additional resources, see the New Hampshire Food Stamp Manual from the New Hampshire Division of Health and Human Services, and the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities report Policy Basics: The Supplemental Nutrition Aid Program (SNAP). Detailing of items that can and cannot be purchased utilizing SNAP benefits is available from the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional Service.

[5] See the New Hampshire Food Stamp Manual Section 611 and 403. Additionally, households including members that are age 60 or over or a member with a disability are subject to a net income test of 100 percent of FPG. These households must also pass a resource test to be considered financially eligible for SNAP benefits. See NHFPI’s July 2021 Issue Brief The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: An Overview of Potential Under Enrollment in New Hampshire.

[6] Other public assistance programs include Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, Old Age Assistance, Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled, or Aid to the Needy Blind.

[7] In most cases, SNAP guidelines require that all individuals aged 16 to 59 years receiving SNAP benefits who are able to engage in employment must work at least 30 hours per week, register for work, participate in the state’s employment program, or take a suitable job if offered one. Exemptions are made for those who are receiving unemployment benefits, have a dependent under the age of 6 in their household, care for a person with disabilities in their household, are physically or mentally unfit to work, participate in drug or alcohol treatment programs, or are in school or a training program at least half-time. However, adults age 18 to 49 who do not have dependents typically are not able to receive benefits for more than three months out of a thirty-six month period unless they work or volunteer 80 hours a month, participate in work programs such as SNAP Employment and Training for at least 80 hours a month, or participate in a combination of work or volunteering and work training equaling at least 80 hours per month. Exemptions to these requirements are made during times of high unemployment, or based on other individual-level factors. Individuals in this age group are exempt from these additional requirements if they are: physically or mentally limited and cannot work, pregnant, or have an individual under age 18 in their household. Able-bodied adults age 18 to 49 without dependents who do not meet these requirements or exceptions will lose their benefits after three months. See the New Hampshire Food Stamp Manual Section 245.

[8] Characteristics of groups who experience food insecurity, and trends over the 2017-2019 period, were calculated and released by the Economic Research Service of the United Sates Department of Agriculture.

[9] Averages for calendar year 2019 are calculated utilizing the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services Monthly Caseload Assistance Reports.

[10] See NHFPI’s July 2021 Issue Brief The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: An Overview of Potential Under Enrollment in New Hampshire.

[11] See the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional Service July 2017 report titled Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): State Outreach Plan Guidance.

[12] See page 7 of the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional Service July 2017 report titled Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): State Outreach Plan Guidance.

[13] See the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional Service July 2017 report titled Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): State Outreach Plan Guidance.

[14] See the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional Service July 2017 report titled Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): State Outreach Plan Guidance.

[15] See the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional Service July 2017 report titled Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): State Outreach Plan Guidance.

[16] Private cash donations to support 50 percent reimbursable SNAP outreach must be approved by FNS. Four conditions must be met for approval: (1) no endorsements of donors or products will be given, (2) no funds will revert back to donor or benefit the donor, (3) funds are donated without restriction on use for a specific person, institution, or facility, and (4) funds are under the State agency’s administrative control. See the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional Service July 2017 report titled Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): State Outreach Plan Guidance.

[17] For information on expanded eligibility or BBCE guidelines in New Hampshire and other states, see the United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service Info Sheet on Broad-Based Categorical Eligibility, updated July 2021.

[18] New Hampshire Food Stamp Manual Section 231. For information on BBCE guidelines in New Hampshire and other states, see the United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service Info Sheet on Broad-Based Categorical Eligibility, updated July 2021.

[19] Averages for calendar year 2019 are calculated utilizing the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services Monthly Caseload Assistance Reports.

[20] Estimates computed by summing the midpoint estimates of the number of individuals at each level of income relative to poverty. See the United States Census Bureau’s American Community Survey 2019 one-year estimates, table B17024.

[21] For information on BBCE guidelines in New Hampshire and other states, see the United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service Info Sheet on Broad-Based Categorical Eligibility, updated July 2021.

[22] State of Maine Food Supplement Outreach Plan FFY 2019, provided at request to NHFPI in September 2021. During FFY 2019, the total amount planned for outreach by the Maine Department of Health and Human Services was $1,006, with 50 percent of costs budgeted for reimbursement by FNS.

[23] Estimates computed by summing the midpoint estimates of the number of individuals at each level of income relative to poverty. See the United States Census Bureau’s American Community Survey 2019 one-year estimates, table B17024.

[24] State of Maine Food Supplement Outreach Plan FFY 2019, provided at request to NHFPI in September 2021. During FFY 2019, the total amount planned for outreach by the Maine Department of Health and Human Services was $1,006, with 50 percent of costs budgeted for reimbursement by FNS.

[25] State of Vermont Outreach Plan FFY 2019. During FFY 2019, the total amount planned for outreach by the Vermont Agency of Human Services was $612,450.52, with 50 percent of costs budgeted for reimbursement by FNS.

[26] Estimates computed by summing the midpoint estimates of the number of individuals at each level of income relative to poverty. See the United States Census Bureau’s American Community Survey 2019 one-year estimates, table B17024.

[27] For information on BBCE guidelines in New Hampshire and other states, see the United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service Info Sheet on Broad-Based Categorical Eligibility, updated July 2021.

[28] State of Massachusetts Outreach Plan FFY 2019, provided at request to NHFPI in September 2021. During FFY 2019, the Massachusetts Department of Transitional Assistance budgeted $250,000 dollars to support a SNAP outreach hotline and $2,789,107.34 to support outreach through partner organizations, with 50 percent of costs budgeted for reimbursement by FNS.

[29] Estimates computed by summing the midpoint estimates of the number of individuals at each level of income relative to poverty. See the United States Census Bureau’s American Community Survey 2019 one-year estimates, table B17024.

[30] See the United States Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey data tables.

[31] See NHFPI’s September 2020 Issue Brief Uneven Employment Impacts and Recovery from the COVID-19 Crisis.

[32] See the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities Fact Sheet titled States Are Using Much-Needed Temporary Flexibility in SNAP to Respond to COVID-19 Challenges.

[33] See the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service web pages on Emergency Allotment Guidance, Responses to COVID-19, and COVID-19 Waivers and Flexibilities in New Hampshire, accessed September 2021.

[34] See the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services Post-Pandemic Benefits Changes web page.

[35] Health outcomes of individuals experiencing food insecurity are discussed in the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture October 2017 publication Adults in Households With More Severe Food Insecurity Are More Likely To Have a Chronic Disease.

[36] For an overview of SNAP and the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program, see NHFPI’s October 2019 updated Fact Sheet The New Hampshire Food Stamp Program. For more information on the potential economic impacts of SNAP expansions and other policies, see NHFPI’s April 2020 Blog Key Policies Provide Short-Term Relief and Long-Term Recovery in COVID-19 Crisis.

[37] For an overview of SNAP and the New Hampshire Food Stamp Program, see NHFPI’s October 2019 updated Fact Sheet The New Hampshire Food Stamp Program. For more information on the potential economic impacts of SNAP expansions and other policies, see NHFPI’s April 2020 Blog Key Policies Provide Short-Term Relief and Long-Term Recovery in COVID-19 Crisis.

[38] See the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional Service report The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Economy: New Estimates of the SNAP Multiplier.

[39] See the Center of Budget and Policy Priorities’ Special Series publication titled Tracking the COVID-19 Economy’s Effects on Food, Housing, and Employment Hardships.

[40] The NH SNAP Outreach Pilot Project was conducted by Liz Alpern of Fair Food Network and Brett St. Clair of Western Skyline Marketing on behalf of the NH Children’s Health Foundation and other private funders. Details and pilot program findings were provided by Fair Food Network via email on August 23, 2021.

[41] See the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional Service June 3, 2021 Policy Memo titled SNAP – Introduction of Priority Areas for State Outreach Plans.